Oy Bay!

"My heart is in the east, and I in the uttermost west." — Yehudah Ha-Levi

The chosen people

Posted by kneidalach on October 10, 2007

Have you ever thought about why are we the chosen people?

Then maybe you can answer me. Jenna the Jew

When we hang around non-Jews, we can’t explain why we are ‘special’, or try to give reason as to why we’re ‘the chosen ones’ and not they. How are they different? and more importantly, why are they different?

The story goes that Hashem went around asking the different nations who would like to receive the Torah, and the Jewish people said, we’ll do and listen/understand.

As Hashem is the Almighty and the powerful, when he created Adam and Chava, he could have made them Jewish in the first place, or given them the Torah right away, or maybe He could have given it to Noah.
Why did He wait for the Jewish people to form (which is what in my opinion was the purpose of the slavery in Egypt) in order to give them the Torah?

Generally speaking, why couldn’t He choose all mankind, as oppose to choosing one nation?

I tried to explain once to a non-Jewish friend that we’re not really the divinely chosen people, that we’re the chosen people of our chosen way. That would be the approach that every idea of divine existence is made up purely by human beings, which is a great philosophical debate.
But after a short pause, I realized that what I was lying. Deep inside, deeper then the subconscious, on the level of the soul, I am different from the non Jew.

But Why?


28 Responses to “The chosen people”

  1. Oyster said

    Jews are different; just like everybody else. :-p

  2. kneidalach said

    We’re different, but why are we “Am Sgula”? why are we divinely chosen as oppose to everyone else?
    Seeing it not from the global point of view, where each nation is equally special, and so are we, but from the Jewish perspective, that says we’re better.
    What gives us the power to say it, and why are we given the power?

  3. Oyster said

    Do you want the stock Torah explanation, or my post-modern interpretation?

  4. kneidalach said

    post-modern interpretation, with quater teaspoon of Torah.

  5. Oyster said

    Okay, Kneidalach, just ‘cuz you asked so nicely. :-p

    Every people under the sun, since time immemorial, have crafted a creation story to explain their origins. And, if my memory serves correctly, in about 99% of these stories, the way in which the people came about is cast in a positive light. In many cases, these involve deities creating the people or blessing them.

    So, all of a sudden when people see that we pesky Jews have a positive explanation for our coming into being as a nation, all of a sudden “chosenness” becomes an issue. It’s only an issue to Christians and Muslims, because they have co-opted & mutilated the Torah to their ends, and they resent that despite their best efforts at Replacement Theology, the Jews still believe their original creation story.

    Trust me, Hindus could give less than half a rat’s ass that Jews think that they are “chosen”. They think that they are chosen. Every ethnic indigenous belief system thinks that they are somehow blessed or special. It’s only the Muslims & Christians who get all hot & bothered by this, and use this as a canard against the Jews.

    “Chosen” is a misnomer, because Jews were not selected to rule or to be given any special benefits over the goyim (nations). Quite the opposite. We were given responsibilities that we are burdened to live up to. Being a Jew ain’t easy.

    And it isn’t as if Jews ever laid claim to having exclusive G-d access rights. As Matisyahu sings, “many paths to one Door”. That’s why there are the Noahide Laws, to remind us that non-Jews as well can live moral & upright lives, and earn themselves a place in the world-to-come. In the story of Balaak, we learn that non-Jewish priests can communicate with HaShem. So we’re saying that we have our beliefs which we maintain are right for us, but don’t insist that they are right for everbody else. That’s why Judaism is an ethnic / indigenous religion, while Christianity & Islam are universalist religions.

  6. lchaimlover said

    Oyster: ““Chosen” is a misnomer, because Jews were not selected to rule or to be given any special benefits over the goyim (nations). Quite the opposite. We were given responsibilities that we are burdened to live up to. Being a Jew ain’t easy.”

    So then what does it mean when the Torah says we are to be a “light unto the nations”?

    To ask why we were chosen is to question Hashem’s intentions, which is something we do well, but also something we can never know. Who knows why we were chosen, but the real question is, does it matter to you that you as a Jew are “chosen”. If so, then why does it matter to you that Jews are “chosen”. When you break it down, it becomes a very personal question.

  7. minsky said

    I don’t get it Kneidalach… in my post on Zionism, I conceded that we are debating Jewish identity. It’s been discussed on ten other posts. Why didn’t you comment there?

    I think we are fragmenting the discussion. Can we try to organize it so that we get everyone to participate?

    Its becoming a horse-race of posts on the same subject, exhausting readers to the point that they just ignore the question.

    Maybe it has more to do with how posts are tracked?


    To the point. You cannot be Chosen, just by being a Jew.

    The Torah is not an ethnic religion in the Hindu sense, and Christianity and Islam are symptomatic of this profound difference, an organic outgrowths of its inherent universalism.

    Granted, it is a theological debate, straddling reason and revelation, i.e. reductionism and delirium.

    As Oyster noted, many nations share the notion of chossenes. If we go by public opinion surveys, every single nation believes itself to belong to a superior culture. This means that from a comparative perspective the idea of being chosen, is meaningless.

    But not from a Torah perspective. Those who were given Torah, those present at the time, were those who accepted the bond of the Torah. They Chose their covenant, and it became Chosen. Since it was Chosen, those who followed it, were Chosen by it. Hence the Chosen. So if you want to be Chosen, you have to have Torah, you are then a Jew.

  8. lchaimlover said

    The discussion is a fragmented one, is to have it over and over again is relevant, as the question is a difficult one to get at. To attack the question in many different ways feels appropriate, otherwise how can we wrap our mind around the question?

  9. ArchangelinAmerica said

    Are we the chosen people or are we the choosey people? Did Adonai choose us or did we choose to accept him (insert pronoun apology here)?

    BTW…Having pride in your people is a good thing. All culture’s do. Enough with the cultural relativism already. As long as you don’t advocate eliminating an entire culture from the face of the earth, there is nothing wrong with touting the values and accomplishments of your own people.

  10. Eva said

    As it says in many places, Hashem is an entity, and we have a ‘dailog’ with Him. Therefore, not only we should, but we must question His actions, to understand and to be closer so Him.

    What I’m really asking, is not the fact that every nation thinks it’s special, that is obvious to any pigeon, but why, in YOUR opinion, did Hashem choose one nation rather then all human kind??

  11. Muslim Hindu Christian Jewish Peace Plan
    By William Glick
    http://www.equalsouls.org (The Jewish Hindu Dialogue)

    The desire to bring peace to the world is most likely the inner
    mood of most of us today. To-do that we need to come to a
    common understanding of religious terminology and beliefs.

    For example most of us have no idea that the name Allah comes
    from the Hebrew letter Alef, our A, in the English alphabet.
    This simple point contains enough information for every
    Christian, Jew and Hindu to accept Allah as a name of God.

    I will explain further, in the “Old Testament” which Jewish
    people call the 5 books of Moses, God explains that He is the
    beginning to the end. This same idea is expressed in the New
    Testament. Revelation 22:13, I am the Alpha and the Omega,
    the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End. This
    English usage of Alpha is based on the Hebrew Alef. Also in
    the Hindu (Vedic) scripture, Bagavad Gita, Krishna says “of
    letters I am A.”

    Has God sent so many messengers each with a different
    message? Is He sitting in the Garden of Eden laughing at us?
    I think not! We have twisted His message based on our own
    material desire, creating our own Hell on Earth.

    The objection we find from our Muslim brothers today comes
    from the desire to bring the world back to God and His ways.
    We find this mood in our Jewish-Christian tradition also.
    Proverbs 1:7 The fear of the LORD is the beginning of
    knowledge, but fools despise wisdom and discipline.

    This lack of discipline, this foolish rush of insane
    materialism is what every deeply religious person objects to,
    no matter which faith he or she is coming from. We can take
    good example from our Amish brothers and Hindu (Vedic) sages.

    An error of modern society and religion is to identify the
    body as the self. The Bhagavad-Gita clearly explains that we
    should see and accept the spiritual essence (the soul) of
    each living being as spiritually equal. There it is said,
    “The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with
    equal vision a learned and gentle Brahman, a cow, an
    elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcast].”
    [Bagavad Gita 5.18]

    How does the learned sage see every living entity with equal
    vision? He sees the spirit soul within the heart of each of
    God’s creations. He understands that although living forms
    may appear different, those appearances are only the external
    coverings of the soul, and that spiritually we are all equal.

    A careful analysis shows that all problems result from our
    first mistake of identifying the body as the self. If we
    identify ourselves by race, religion and ethnic group we will
    then suffer or enjoy the results of that identity, but the
    fact is we are spiritually equal and the bodily identity that
    we accept is both temporary and insignificant compared to our
    eternal spiritual identity. We suffer due to birth, disease,
    old age and death; we need not identify with the body, which
    is being afflicted by these difficulties.

    If everyone understood and acted on the level of the soul
    rather than the body, the world’s problems would practically
    cease. Understanding the difference between matter and
    spirit, and that God is the controller of all things, is the
    essence of knowledge.

    It is natural that when we become overwhelmed by
    difficulties, we become aware of our dependence on God.
    Unfortunately, due to our deep attachment to materialism, we
    are drawn to perceive religion in much the same manner, as we
    perceive ordinary social activities. That is, we become
    attached to identifying with the external or social side of
    religion, while we forget its essence-loving service to God.

    Our modern use of the word religion, expresses an external
    alterable faith, while the Sanskrit word dharma, implies an
    internal or essential eternal relationship with God. Our
    religion or faith can change but the soul’s relationship with
    God is eternal. For example, I may claim that I am a
    Christian today, but I may adopt the practices of a Hindu or
    of a Jew tomorrow. However, whatever faith you my follow, the
    essence of that faith is loving service to God.

    We must understand that our Muslim brothers and sisters who
    have come to understand the true message of Allah accept all
    of us as children of God based on this verse from the Koran.
    2.62: Surely those who believe, and those who are Jews, and
    the Christians, and the Sabians, whoever believes in Allah
    and the Last day and does good, they shall have their reward
    from their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall
    they grieve.

    We should also understand that as a nation, nay as a human
    race if we do not come to follow God’s laws and develop our
    love for Him and His creation, our future is all too clear.

    For Our Lord says: Isaiah 46: I make known the end from the
    beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. I say:
    My purpose will stand, and I will do all that I please.

    Thank You and God’s Blessings
    William Glick http://www.equalsouls.org

  12. AaronfromWG said

    Muslims make many statements about their religion’s true identity but actions speak louder than words.
    William Glick, if that is your real name, your characterization of Muslims is interesting and it is one I have heard Muslims make as they make excuses for terrorists. “If you would all just become Muslims we wouldn’t have to kill you.” Islam was started by a man who exterminated entire villages. Muslims believe Hindu religion is idol worship and therefor they should be forced to convert or killed.

    It is up to Muslims whether they want to modernize their religion and make it a true religion of peace but until they do that, 98% of Islam is a religion of domination, persecution, extermination, and submission(actual meaning of Islam).

    The following are true in General in modern times.
    Hindus don’t fight Jews, Jews don’t fight Buddhists, Buddhists don’t fight Christians, there are exceptions to this. Muslims are fighting all these religions all over the world from Nigeria to Bali to Kashmir to Judea to the Netherlands to NYC to Chechnya to Bosnia to Lebanon to Philippines to Argentina to Spain.
    This is not a coincidence!

  13. kneidalach said

    I don’t think Islam should be attacked as a religion.
    Even if they do use force against ‘Idol worshippers’, so did we in Israel, and so did the Christians all throughout the western history.
    I could not believe that all the billion (correct me if I’m wrong) Muslims that live on the planet suffer daily from the wrong religion choice. My point is, even though I don’t know almost anything about Islam, it works for the people who follow it.
    And let’s take terrorism out of this issue.
    Terrorists are extremists that base their arguments on religion.

  14. AaronfromWG said

    rebuttal to kneidalch:
    “I don’t think Islam should be attacked as a religion.”
    Some religions are bad and some are not bad. Satanism is bad. Some religions offer human sacrifice. That is bad. If a religion is bad it can and should be attacked.

    “Even if they do use force against ‘Idol worshippers’, so did we in Israel, and so did the Christians all throughout the western history.”
    Jews and Christians did these things in the past as your statement implies but they have changed since then. Islam has not changed and continues to this very day to practice forced conversions. That makes Islam a bad religion.

    “Terrorists are extremists that base their arguments on religion.”
    No. Terrorists are anyone who uses violence against civilians to promote their political or ideological goals. How convenient that you want to take terrorism out of the conversation. If you do that than your right, Islam is just like every other religion. But in the real world terrorism does exist. If you want to read about the history of terrorism in Islam, then read the Koran. Go to the part where the Jewish villages are exterminated. Mohammad was very benevolent. He let the women and children live as slaves.

  15. minsky said

    Kneidalch- Islam is a choice?!

    Islam and Muslims don’t even understand the concept!

    You are born into Islam, and if you chose to quit, according to Sharia you may be killed! How is that for a choice?

    You also imply that since they are making a choice, they must naturally choose for the good, and hence their choice of Islam must be a choice for the good. Talk about petitio principi. Talk about logic.

    Speaking of India, are you aware Mr Glick, of the atrocities Muslims committed there for nearly six hundred years? Do you know how many idol worshipers they have wiped out? I mean what are you talking about?! And why do you post a long off-the-topic boring reprint of something off your website. How about addressing what’s been said? What are you here, to proselytize us?

    This makes me wonder Kneidalch. What is the point of your question about choseness, if you a priori assume everyone to be equal, and all religions to be equal? You are in effect asking your question with a great deal of prejudice for the response, because you obviate the very possibility of actual chosseness!

    hence you wont understand clear-cut answers such as the Torah, the Meshiach, and the duty of each and every Jew to the Torah. You say we all know everyone thinks they are better, and you don’t accept this as an answer. If you are looking for opinion polls, then why reject opinions?

    Aron is clearly stating, that some religions are better than others. I am clearly stating, that not only are some better, but that the Torah makes exclusive claims on Jews, and hence choses us for a specific role in the world. Aron gave you arguments, why some religions are worse, I can give you arguments, why Torah is the best, but I am not sure you will care.

    What is your answer to the question of choseness? You want to know why it is us who were chosen?

    It’s in the Torah! Exquisite clarity and very persuasive.

  16. kneidalach said

    Couple of responses:
    1) Islam as a bad religion; choice; good;
    2) My assumptions that we’re all equal, yet we are the ‘chosen’. what am I asking?

    Let’s start with Islam. a religion. That is, a way of life, lifestyle, set of values, of morals. set of good and evil. Each culture and religion has a different set of right and wrong and a different lifestyle.
    Saying a particular religion is bad, is being very ethnocentric.
    Who are YOU to judge if a religion is good or bad? Because it deosn’t fall under YOUR set of morals?

    Now the reason I want to seperate Islam and terrorism is because terrorism is human cruelty towards other humans, justified by whatever reason- religion, race, color, sex, etc etc. Under my definition, any genocide, terrorist act, killing, rape, war, enslavery is part of the human cruelty.
    Religion is a different sociological aspect of human beings. The fact that modern terrorists come from Islam countries, well, tommorow it will be somebody else.

    We cannot judge a culture and its practices as good or not. Good is relative, and we can have long philosophical debates about it.

    As Minsky said,
    “What is the point of your question about choseness, if you a priori assume everyone to be equal, and all religions to be equal? You are in effect asking your question with a great deal of prejudice for the response, because you obviate the very possibility of actual chosseness!”

    and you’re somewhat right, I am coming from the assumptions that all humans are equal.
    That’s exactly why I’m asking why did Hashem chose us as a nation and not all of humanity?
    When the Meshiah comes, all Goyim will believe in Hashem. Well, why did Hashem not chose all people?

    Why did He give the Torah only to us?

    Oh!!!! The real question is, what is the role of goyim on earth? What is the purpose of diversity?

  17. minsky said

    Who am I to judge if a religion is good or bad?!

    I, like any other human being on earth, have a right to judge good and bad. Like any human being, I have a right to voice and articulate my fears and my observations. Nothing on earth gives any religion, any system, any thought, immunity from this right. I have a right to morals. My morals, my culture, my ethnicity. If another culture, another system presents a challenge to my own, guess what? I have a right to say it, to formulate it, to propagate it. I base most of my morality on Torah, on Humanism, and on Western values.

    That’s right, western values, torah, humanism Because you know what, I have a problem with slavery, xenophobia, imperialism, and sexism. Which, guess what, are textually incorporated, and propagated left and right by Islam, Islamists, and even moderate Muslims. (viz my posts US and Jihad, and Three Cheers for Imperialism)

    Yes, my values are both better, and superior. I suppose you on the other hand, will condone slavery, racism, and Nazism, in any guise and any sheeps clothing, as long as they excuse themselves as the “other”.

    Not only are my values superior, unlike you, I profoundly fail to tow the line on “minority rights” which takes the “other” in order to estrange him from me. To me the other is a dangerous construct. We are all equal and the same. Hence all women world wide deserve equality. I can’t excuse sexism on some liberal nonsense of minority rights and the other. You cannot sell me the lie that the “other” can be excused for his crimes, by virtue of being the other. You cannot silence me or reprimand me, by devaluing the vitality of my belief or culture.

    I judge Islam, and I will continue to Judge it, like I judge Zionism, like I judge majority racism, like I judge minority ethnocentrism. I can only thank Hashem, when Torah guides me. Yes, this means I have values, and this means they are not paper, virtual, public polling values, but ocassionaly alive, living, real values. Adhering to them I cannot look at Islam, and accept is as equal to any other religion short of shammanism!

    As for why us?

    Have you ever opened the Torah? It is clearly stated why we have been chosen. How can you miss it?

    But I guess, then you wouldn’t have so much trouble deciding between political expedience and the the Armenian genocide recognition.
    Are you really so prejudiced that you cannot take the answer that is right before you? Are you really negating our Jewish history to the extent that the Torah has no validity?

  18. AaronfromWG said

    “We cannot judge a culture and its practices as good or not. Good is relative, and we can have long philosophical debates about it.”

    Maybe we shouldn’t throw people in jail if they murder and happen to be Muslim. How can we judge whether murder is good or bad. It is because of his culture he committed the crime, errr I mean the cultural act.

    Wake up! Certain things are bad. Murder, Stealing, Coercion, Rape. It’s universal.

    metaphor: Whether you are a Yankee or Red Sox, hitting a home run is a GOOD thing and getting struck out is a BAD thing.

  19. kneidalach said

    Did I say, SEPERATE the two ideas??? The basic human cruelty idea(rape, war, murder,stealing, terrorism, etc) with the idea of religion and different social structures?

  20. AaronfromWG said

    Terrorism is in the Koran therefor it can’t be separated from the religion without the religion going through major reform.

  21. lchaimlover said

    Minsky: To be fair, the Torah says specifically, that Hashem chose the Patriarchs, and the Jews just came with the deal.

    “It was not because you were more in number than any other people that the L-RD set his love upon you and chose you, for you were the fewest of all peoples; but it is because the L-RD loves you, and is keeping the oath which he swore to your fathers, that the L-RD has brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you from the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt” (Deut. 7:7-8).

    To all: And what was the big deal about Abraham? He was willing to do whatever G-d said, including sacrifice Yitzak. At some point, even before Sinai, it became abundantly clear that Jews weren’t always willing to do this. So then it became the Jews who chose Hashem. If you are willing to accept and keep the Torah, then you are apart of the chosen. You have accepted the yoke and bear the burden of a pact, that in reality had nothing to do with us, but our forefather.

    And you may bash Islam all you want, but Hashem chose them for something too, otherwise, why did Hashem save Ishamel?

    It doesn’t say that only Yitzak will be a great nation, but both sons would be.

  22. Oyster said


    When Isaiah (42:6) said that, he was referring to the Jews to live as
    an example to the non-Jewish world, not to subdue, conquer, or
    proselytize them. Big difference. For example, last week in Parashat
    Noakh we learned of the Noahide Laws that all of humanity is beholden
    to. Chabad takes the “light unto the nations” passage to mean that
    they should help non-Jews learn about & follow the Noahide
    . Chosen to live righteously as an example to the non-Jewish
    world, not chosen to be “better than thou”.


    Alas, such is the nature of the beast. Jewish Identity is a
    sufficiently large topic that I’m sure we’ll find several readers
    commenting on it in several posts as time goes by. We can only really
    focus & codify if we’re putting together a thesis or a book.


    It definitely was a two-way covenant, so I’d argue that we chose one
    another. Bashert! :-p

    William Glick:

    You’re lucky that AaronfromWG commented on your comment, otherwise I
    would have deleted that spam! If you care to have it remain up, want
    to actually have something relevant to say on the conversation?


    I’ll have to back Kneidalakh up on this. It’s only a minority of
    Muslims who are the murderous extremists. A majority of Muslims might
    not like Israel or the Jews, but it doesn’t make them murderers.


    Thanks for answering the chosenness source in the Torah for me. :-p
    But that still doesn’t address Kneidalach’s deeper question of, “Why
    have non-chosen people at all?” I’m still grappling with that, myself.
    BTW, the Torah, by the story of Ishmael, points to the ascendency of
    the Arab nation, not per se Islam (they were Christian or pagan before

    I forget where I read this, but some religious Jewish commentor wrote
    that they theorize that HaShem created Christianity & Islam to wipe
    out idol worship from the face of the earth.

    I don’t agree with that hypothesis.


    My stab at your more interesting question would be that, as Minsky
    says, the Torah gives us a precedent for people being selected. We
    just read last week in Parashat Noakh of Noakh’s family being selected
    to survive the Flood. Then Abraham is selected. And then Moses.

    HaShem’s plans are beyond our mortal comprehension. But it is clear
    that HaShem has assigned different roles to different people(s).

  23. kneidalach said

    ‘different roles to different nations’
    Like what?

    I like your idea that we are set as an example to the rest of people, but that seems quite untrue throughout time. Nobody followed our model, they only followed our footprints to track us down and wipe us off the face of the earth.

    So these people, Noah, Avraham, Moshe, etc. Were leaders or sparks of a new beginning.
    So Are we the spark of Christianity and Islam? Is that our purpose?

  24. Oyster said

    HaShem told us to be an example. No where does it say in the Tanakh that the goyim must listen… :-/

    If only they knew the benefit that they received from us sacrificing those 70 bulls for them on Sukkot… they would have never destroyed the Temple! (to paraphrase a learned rabbi)

  25. kneidalach said

    But anything we do, means something to HaShem, and therefore have an impact on the rest of the world. So maybe having half the world turn to Monotheism was the impact?

    Umm, they would destroy the temple anyway. They didn’t know, wouldn’t want to know, and would want power and gold anyway.

  26. Mike said

    I am not going to talk about religion, Jewish or otherwise. I’m not ordained, so I can neither claim to be well versed nor accountable for my statements.

    I will make a comment about leadership, cryptic though it may be – take it as you will. In a dark room, you follow the guy with the torch. Now, the one holding the torch can lead you around, but the one you can see best is the torch bearer since they’re closest to the light. If the torch bearer has an olive (what is Hebrew for olive?), everyone can notice it. When everyone else eventually gets close enough to the light, they will be able to see their own olive.

    Now I ask you: dim the lights, or point out the olives? Furthermore, who’s got the olive: the torch-bearer, or the collective group of people under the light? And who will do something about the olive?

  27. Friar Yid said

    If you want to read about the history of terrorism in Islam, then read the Koran. Go to the part where the Jewish villages are exterminated. Mohammad was very benevolent. He let the women and children live as slaves.

    And under the same rubric countless other civilizations are terrorists, too, including us (Book of Joshua)? So where does that leave us?

    Have you ever opened the Torah? It is clearly stated why we have been chosen. How can you miss it?

    So maybe the question should be amended to, “if you take salt with your Torah, what’s the answer?”

    Are you really so prejudiced that you cannot take the answer that is right before you? Are you really negating our Jewish history to the extent that the Torah has no validity?

    Why does, “besides/in addition to what the Torah says, what do you think” presume that it has no validity?

    I can’t speak for Kneidelach, but to me it’s another book. An important book, but a book, all the same. And, sorry, but I need a little more than JUST a book for some of these “BIG” questions. And no, not everybody can accept what the Torah says (which is convenient, since most of the time we can’t seem to agree on what it’s saying in the first place).

    Anyway, isn’t “just read the Torah” a pretty reductive answer to such a broad question?

  28. kneidalach said

    For me the Torah is not just a book, but I did think that answering with “the Torah told us so” was a bit reducive answer.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: